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Fetal mummification in cattle PDF

(Pdf) Fetal Mummification in Cattle: Current Approach on

  1. Keywords: Fetal mummification, induction of pregnancy, cow, Caessarian section. Introduction In cattle, the incidence of fetal mummification is 0.13-1.8% (Arthur et al., 1996) and is considered as a gestational accident. It occurs sporadically in both exotic and indigenous breeds of cattle (Jana and Ghosh, 2014)
  2. Fetal mummification is a rare occurrence in most animals. However it is commonly seen in polytocous species like swine. Exact etiology of fetal mummification is unclear and because late embryonic death is influenced by several factors that govern
  3. Fetal mummification occurs after placenta formation and ossification [1] in both exotic and indigenous cattle [5] wherein the fetus remains in the uterus even after completion of gestation period [6]. In cases of fetal mummification there is an absence of initiation of parturition signal which may be due to dead fetus

Lefebvre RC (2015) Fetal mummication in the major domestic species: current perspectives on causes and management. Vet Med Res Rep 6: 233-244. Moore AA, Richardson GF (1995) Uterine torsion and fetal mummification in a cow. Can Vet J 36: 705-706. Noakes DE, Parkinson TJ, England GCW (2009) Maternal dystocia: Causes and Treatment In cattle, fetal mummification occurs with an incidence of 0.13-1.8% (Arthur et al., 1996) and haematic mummification is the norm. Mummification of bovine foetus can be regarded as a gestational accident, occurring sporadically both in indigenous as well as exotic cattle and their crosses too (Jana and Ghosh, 2014). In thi Fetal mummification is a rare obstetrical disorder in the doe causing the economic losses in the terms of fetal loss as well as treatment cost to the poor farmers. Fetal mummification as a cause of dystocia in doe has been reported with few literatures. Dystocia due to single mummified fetus (Bisla et al. 2018), mummified fetu Fetal electrocardiogram in cattle IV 115 3) Case No.2 This case was a 7-year-old Holstein cow. A rectal palpation performed at 228 days of pregnancy failed to give any signs of fetal life because of deep descent of the gravid uterus into the abdominal cavity. But, fetal mummification was suspected. An examination o The causes of mummification are poorly described, and it is considered that infectious agents like Campylobacter fetus, molds, leptospriosis and BVD-MD virus causing fetal death without abortion may result into mummification in cattle (Drost, 2007) and buffaloes (Martuciello et al., 2009)

(PDF) Etiology, antenatal diagnosis and therapy of fetal

Fetal mummification in horses is very rare. An extensive study of abortion in the equine population of Michigan from 1985 to 1996 (n=290) found only two cases (0.007%) of fetal mummification. 49 As is the case in cows, mummification occurs between the 3rd and 8th month of pregnancy, after the completion of ossification affects cattle of all ages and is consid- abortion, fetal mummification or a calf born with a persistent infection. If fetuses are exposed to BVD at cattle, bovine, fetal infection, infection, acute infection, livestock, diarrhea,bvd,disease,livestock,health,fsa3093, immune system, gastrointestinal, appetite, weight loss, respiratory.

(Allcock and Penhale 1952, Oelzner and Munnich 1997, Noakes et al., 2001). Fetal maceration which is common in cattle and rare in bitches is due to uterine inertia or intrauterine infections, failure of expulsion of the aborted fetus leading to emphysemated or macerated fetus (Johnston et al., 2001). In thes repeated breeding, vaginal and uterine prolapsed, fetal mummification, prenatal and neonatal mortality and dystocia have also be reported as reproductive health problems in dairy cows [7]. Studies which have been conducted to assess major reproductive health disorders in cross breed dairy cows indicates that reproductive disorders such as clinica Two relatively unusual fetal problems, mummification and maceration, are also discussed, followed by a comparison of two hydropic conditions (hydrallantois and hydramnios). Hydrops allantois, primarily a placental problem, occurs about nine times more frequently than hydrops amnii, which is a result of fetal anomalies

1.. IntroductionAlthough the causes of fetal mummification in cattle are often difficult to identify, some genetic factors due to autosomal recessive gene have been reported to be involved in bovine fetal mummification (Roberts, 1962, Stevens and King, 1968).Recessive lethal genes contribute to embryonic and fetal mortality Two cases of bovine fetal mummification were treated with a single intramuscular injection of 500 μg cloprostenol. Plasma progesterone levels fell rapidly within 24 hours following injection from a mean level of 10.45 ng/ml to 1.05 ng/ml. Extradiol-17β levels were variable and low (x = 3.04 pg/ml) during the 120-hour postinjection sampling period Embryonic or fetal losses may occur as a result of any causes that damage embryo or fetus during prenatal development period. These losses are called resorption, abortion, mummification and maceration according to the stage of pregnancy. Fetal maceration is often observed in cattle, but also can occur in other domestic animals NILSSON LS., Jr Fetal mummification in cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1960 Sep 1; 137:297-299. [Google Scholar] Parmley TH, Seeds AE. Fetal skin permeability to isotopic water (THO) in early pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1970 Sep 1; 108 (1):128-131. [Google Scholar] ROBERTS SJ. The enigma of fetal mummification

Download Free PDF. Download Free PDF. p-ISSN 2348-8883 ©Scholars Academic and Scientific Publishers (SAS Publishers) (An International Publisher for Academic and Scientific Resources) Surgical Management of Haematic Fetal Mummification in an Ongole Cow The mummified fetus. incidence of fetal mummification in cattle ranges from 0.13 -1.8. A case of Dystocia due to Fetal Ascites in Murrah Buffalo. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology. 2017; 2(4). 3. Ahuja AK, Singla VK, Singhal S, Kumar S. Management of post-partum bilateral uterine prolapse in a cross bred cattle: A case report. Haryana Veterinarian. 2016; 55(2):239-40. 4

Fetal mummification in the major domestic species: current

Download PDF Download. Animal Reproduction Science. Volume 91, Issues 1-2, January 2006, Pages 45-54. Deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS) and X-chromosome deletion in fetal mummification in cattle. Author links open overlay panel Mohamed Elshabrawy Ghanem a Toshihiko Nakao a Masahide Nishibori b Infectious causes of infertility and abortions in cattle G N Purohit Specific Causes of Infertility • Bacteria- Brucella, Camopylobacter, Leptospira, Listeria • Viruses- IBR-IPV, BVD • Protozoa- Tritrichomonas, Neospora, Toxoplasma • Fungi- Aspergillus Venereal diseases • Venereal disease in cattle can be caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoal organisms (Harlizus et al. 1996). chromosome deletion in fetal mummification in cattle. www.veterinaryworld.org Veterinary World, Vol.3 No.11 November 2010 524. Deficiency of Uridine Monophosphate Synthase : A Recessive Disorder in Holstein Friesian Cattle Anim. Reprod. Sci. 91: 45-54. bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) and. Fig. 2 shows plasma PAG-1 levels and N. caninum antibody titers for the three cows. In the cows with mummified fetuses, PAG-1 concentrations were low (Cow 3) or even undetectable (Cow 2) when fetal mummification was detected. In the case of Cow 2, PAG-1 concentration was already low 30 days before mummification had been detected Fetal mummification in a cow with twin gestation and retention of the fetuses in the vagina: a case report 115 Figure 1. Pre-ovulatory follicle, at the day of estrus, of a cow that had mummified twin fetuses in the vagina. Figure 2 - Mummified fetuses recovered from the vagina of

Complications during gestation in the cow - ScienceDirec

Deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS) and X

2. Dropsy of fetal membranes 3. Abdominal hernia resulting in hysterocele 4. Cervicovaginal prolapse 5. Uterine torsion 6. Fetal mummification 7. Fetal maceration 8. Paraplegia of pregnancy 9. Hemorrhage of pregnancy 10. Rupture of gravid uterus 11. Strangulation of the large colon by the gravid uterus 12. Strangulation of the gravid uterus by. Uterine torsion and fetal mummification in a cow. A A Moore and G F Richardson. Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (351K), [Uterine torsion in cattle--therapy and consequences for calf and cow]. Erteld E, Krohn J, Dzhakupov IT. The fetal mummification is different in monotocous and polytocous species. In cattle and buffalo, it is commonly observed between 4th to 8th month of gestation. The fetal death without abortion, persistent corpus luteum and progesterone influence collectively lead to the formation of the mummified fetus Introduction. Mummification of bovine fetuses is an uncommon condition with an incidence of less than 2% ().Fetal mummification has been reported in several species, including the sheep (), goat (), horse (), pig (), and dog and cat (), but it is more common in cattle ().Breed and previous occurrence seem to be risk factors with a higher incidence of fetal mummification in Guernsey and Jersey. fetal death in the form of mummified fetuses and stillbirths. As mentioned earl­ ier mummification may follow the death of 35 to 90 day fetuses. After fetal death there is a condensation of tissue aldehydes to form phenolic agents which preserve the fetus and the fetal membranes. The culturing of mummified fetuses have i

Review Article UNRAVELING THE MYSTERY OF UTERINE TORSION IN BOVINES: A REVIEW *A Thangamani1, M Srinivas2, B Chandra Prasad3, K Anusha3, K Sadasiva Rao4 and L Phani Kumar5 1M.V.Sc Scholar, Department of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics 2Professor, Department of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics 3Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetric Embryonic or fetal losses may occur as a result of any causes that damage embryo or fetus during prenatal development period. These losses are called resorption, abortion, mummification and maceration according to the stage of pregnancy. Fetal maceration is often observed in cattle, but also can occur in other domestic animals DOI: 10.5958/2277-3371.2015.00016.9 Corpus ID: 53691685. Successful Treatment of Fetal Mummification in a Bitch by Caesarean Section: A Case Report @article{Vikram2015SuccessfulTO, title={Successful Treatment of Fetal Mummification in a Bitch by Caesarean Section: A Case Report}, author={R. Vikram and G. Chaudhary and T. B. Sivanarayanan and S. Sushobhit and K. Narayanan}, journal. During foetal mummification the dead foetus remains in the closed uterus and the foetus with body fluids reabsorbed and the foetus becomes dry and paper-like texture (Jackson, 2004). Hematic type of mummification is more common in cattle and the papyraceous is found in other species of animals (Roberts, loc.cit.). However, Foeta Fetal death, with resorption or mummification, or abortion may occur following BVD infection in early to mid-gestation up to 120 days Abortion must occur in an acceptable proportion of nonvaccinated control cattle Appropriate challenge strains must be used in vaccination/challenge studies or acceptable field studies may be performe

resorption, fetal mummification and stillbirth, immuno-logical dysfunctions, concurrent infections, impaired herd performance, and the dreaded state of persistent cattle, however, in the great majority of viruses (about 90%) isolated in the laboratory, all of the PI, and the. reabsorption, fetal mummification, abortion and congeni-tal malformations, especially of the central nervous system. Fetal infection with a non-cytopathic virus in the first trimester of pregnancy causes persistently infected * Correspondence: jpizarro@uchile.cl Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Animal Preventive Medicine Congenital defects are abnomalities of structure or function present at birth. They may affect only a single anatomical structure such as the eye, an entire system, parts of several systems or involve several body systems, or combine functional and structural defects (syndrome). Many different congenital defects, either of genetic, environmental, or unknown cause, or due to.

1) Fetal diseases: Diseases of the fetus during intrauterine life, e.g. prolonged gestation, congenital defects, abortion, fetal deaths with resorption or mummification. 2) Parturient diseases: diseases associated with dystokia causing cerebral anoxia, injuries of skeleton and soft tissues. 3) Postnatal diseases The pregnancy loss associated with BVD is dependent on when in gestation the dam is exposed to the virus. Embryonic infection in the first trimester can result in fetal reabsorption, mummification, or abortion, or can have no effect. Calves can become persistently infected (PI) if exposed to the virus during the first 120 days of gestation Download PDF Download. Animal Reproduction Science. Volume 91, Issues 1-2, January 2006, Pages 45-54. Deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS) and X-chromosome deletion in fetal mummification in cattle. Author links open overlay panel Mohamed Elshabrawy Ghanem a Toshihiko Nakao a Masahide Nishibori b The present clinical article reports pervaginal delivery of mummified fetus in a cross-bred cow. Diagnosis of the case was made on the basis of the clinical signs, per vaginal and per rectal examination followed by dilation therapy

Macerated fetal bones recovered from animal NoAbortion - Veterinary Pathobiology 5576 with Johnson at

Fetal Globosus Amorphus - 8 mos. Ventral aspect of a globosus amorphus. An incidental finding of a soft ball sized slaughter house specimen connected to the placental circulation of a normal Holstein 8 month old fetal twin fetus. Note the stump of the umbilical cord on the right. Drost M (2013) Printable Versio Maceration or mummification without a specific cause was detected in ten fetuses (3%). Thyroid hyperplasia was recorded in four fetuses (1%) and in eight (5%) stillborne calves. Asfyksia, fetal fluid aspiration or oedematous or traumatic lesions indicating dystocia were recorded as cause of death in 63/148 (43%) still borne or neonatal calves Fetal Membrane Slip (be gentle, as you can damage a pregnancy by rough palpation) 32 days thread 1 horn 45 small string 1horn 60 string 2 horns >70 large string. Cotyledons (actually the placentome, which is the cotyledon/caruncle unit). You must rule out that you a not palpating an ovary by feeling at least 3 The causes of fetal death and mummification in cattle are often the same as causes for fetal and abortion. The cause of fetal mummification is often impossible to determine because the time of fetal death is not known and autolysis and mummification of the fetus and membranes makes determination of the causative agent difficult or impossible. Bluetongue virus infection is a cause of abortion, fetal mummification, stillbirth, and congenital brain malformation in lambs. The clinical syndrome, serotypes involved, and diagnosis are the same as for cattle.Most, if not all, reproductive failure is caused by attenuated vaccine viruses rather than field viruses

[Full text] Fetal mummification in the major domestic

Response of two cows with mummified fetus to treatment

Relationship of Unkeratinized Skin to Bovine Fetal

Zearalenone Printable PDF Background Information: Zearalenone is a Fusarium-produced mycotoxin that has a chemical structure similar to estrogen, and can produce estrogenic responses in animals.Swine are very sensitive to ZEA, as well as ruminants. Ruminants can metabolize some toxins down in the rumen to reduce their effects, but in the case of ZEA, more than 90% is converted to alpha. Fetal mummification is a late gestational problem in bovines with incidence rate of less than 2%. A three and half year old Jersey cow was presented to Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut with the history of prolonged gestation period (Table 1), while other causes of enterocolitis in cattle, includ-ing Salmonella spp. and bovine coronavirus, were ruled out by specific testing (see Online Resource 1). Outbreak 2 Outbreak 2 occurred at a dairy herd of 1222 Holstein cattle, including 580 milking cows, 40 dry cows, 200 heifers, 400 calves, and 2 bulls. Of 533 pregnant cows

However, Purohit et al. [2] found the incidence of ICD in cattle and buffaloes to be 5.1%. It occurs because of altered endocrine milieu during parturition. The incidence of Cervico-vaginal prolapsed (CVP) is more commonly observed during the last trimester of pregnancy Diagnosis by serology, virus isolation, IHC, PCR. Eradicated from the US since 2004. A common virus in swine population that may cause myoclonia congenita. It is associated with sporadic outbreaks of fetal death and/or mummification. PCR may detect PCV2 in serum or tissues of presuckle piglets with myoclonia congenita gestation (when the fetal immune system is mature) usually results in normal lambs.17 The reproductive effects of BVDV-2 infection in sheep inoculated at 3 stages of gestation have been previously investigated.20 In this study, BVDV-2 antigen was detected in placentomes from 7 to 36 days post inoculation and in fetal fluids an The occurrence of these defects among the Russian dairy cattle has never been extensively screened before. In this study, we will investigate the occurrence of 10 lethal recessive Holstein haplotypes HH0 (BY), HH1, HH2, HH3, HH4, HH5, HCD, HHC (CVM), HHB (BLAD) and HHD (DUMPS) among the Russian Black-White cattle, and we will determine the. Depending on the time of infection, fetal death is followed by fetal reabsorption, mummification, or expulsion usually within the first trimester of pregnancy (Sprecher et al., Reference Sprecher, Baker, Holland and Yamini 1991; Grooms, Reference Grooms 2004). The mechanisms of viral-induced fetal death and abortion are not clear but may be due.

(PDF) p-ISSN 2348-8883 ©Scholars Academic and Scientific

Abstract | References | Full Paper: PDF | Pages: 81-83 | Date:30-12-2020 Downloads:53. Case Report: Dystocia Due to Amorphous Globosus Monster in a Murrah Buffalo Ravi Dutt and Arjun V Abstract | References | Full Paper: PDF | Pages: 84-85 | Date:30-12-2020 Downloads:61. Case Report: Fetal Mummification in a Hariana Cow: A Case Repor An epizootic characterized by birth of calves severly ataxic and blind were encountered in 3 herds 7-8 months after outbreaks of bovine virus diarrhoea. Serological and virological investigations indicated introduction of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) into previously virus-free herds, followed by transplacental virus infection of the fetuses of cows in the first trimester palpation of female genital organs 4. Oestrus detection in cattle and buffalo 5. Behavioural signs of oestrus in mare, ewe, doe and bitch 6. Detection of oestrus in bitch by vaginal cytology 7. Gynaecological examination of vagina 8. Technique of intra-uterine therapy 9. Collection of genital discharge 10 In addition to abortion, fetal mummification has been associated with Neospora outbreaks*,49. Neospora abortions occur throughout the year but there is possibly a small increased risk of abortion during the late fall and winter53. Bovine fetal Neospora infection does not always produce fetal death resulting in abortion or stillbirth كتاب Retrospective case study of fetal mummification in cows that did not respond to prostaglandin F2alpha treatment. كتاب Retrospective case study of fetal mummification in cows that did not respond to prostaglandin F2alpha treatment متاح للتحميل pdf بحجم 530. 35 KB بتحميل مباشر دون اعادة توجيه لمواقع أخرى، حمل Retrospective case.

Fetus Death - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

mummy. History of service and the texture of the mummy aged it to be approximately 4-5 months of age. The cow was positioned in a crush and secured using a halter with the legs tied using rope and a tail tie to immobilize the tail. Sedation was achieved using Xylazine hydrochloride 2% (Bomazine ®) at a dose rate of .02mg/kg administere Embryonic or fetal death may result in resorption, mummification, maceration or abortion depending on the period of the gestation [1]. Fetal maceration is characterized by fetal death and incomplete abortion to occur as a result of uterine inertia and intrauterine infections [2] تحميل كتاب Comparison of two protocols for the treatment of retained fetal membranes in dairy cattle pdf. Retrospective case study of fetal mummification in cows that did not respond to prostaglandin F2alpha treatment. المزيد مع أغلفة الكتب.

(PDF) Infectious causes of infertility and abortions in

Fetal ascites Fetal ascites characterised by accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity causes dystocia commonly in cows. A case of fetal ascites which caused dystocia in non-descript buffalo [12] and in graded Murrah was reported [13]. In both the cases, the fetus was in posterior presentation with 2 hind limb in beef cattle is 1-2%, and reported to be as high as 10% in dairy herds. There is c ause for concern when During the second trimester , infection causes fetal death, abortion, or mummification. Fetal and/or placental infection during the third trimester results in fetal death, abor tion, maceration, mummification Seroprevalence of Leptospira Hardjo in the Meghalaya cattle population: a pilot study Arockiasamy Arun Prince Milton, Amarjit Karam, Kasanchi M. Momin, Ingudam Shakuntala, Samir Das, Sandeep Ghatak, Rajkumari Sanjukta, Kekungu Puro, Sujit Kumar Behera, Arnab Sen Fetal mummification in one of the triplet kids - a cause of dystocia in a non. Serological surveys based on a planned sampling on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in Brazilian cattle herds are scarce. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine herd- and animal-level seroprevalences and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level seroprevalence for BVDV infection in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, from September 2012 to January 2013

(PDF) PAPYRACEOUS MUMMIFICATION LEADING TO DYSTOCIA OF Awunderkammer 4 - a gallery on Flickr

autolyzed fetuses with no other signs of clinical illness in aborting cattle. The vast majority of abortions occur in the second trimester of pregnancy, 4 to 6 months gestation. Mummification has been associated with Neospora infection in younger fetuses. In rare instances a fetal Neospora infectio Bjerkas at 1984 and causes abortion in cattle and dogs with neuromuscular disorder, and cattle are its major intermediate host (1-3). In both milk and beef cattle, N. caninum is a cause of abortion. Cows of any age will abort their pregnancy from 3 months of gestation to term and most induced neosporosis abortions occur at a gestation of 5-6. In cattle, reproductive, digestive, respiratory, and other body systems are affected by BVDV, but in calves, this virus can cause severe malformations (Al-Afaleq et al., 2007; Saa et al., 2012). The fetal stage and fetal stage after infection are the two phases of primary reasons for transmission and dissemination of BVDV in herd common in cattle and buffaloes (Purohit and Gaur 2011, Dutt et al. 2017, 2018) but may be rarely encountered in mares (Burns and Card 2000) and small ruminants (Mehta et al. 2005, Ajitkumar et al. 2007). It has also been observed that incidence of fetal maceration is more in cattle than in buffaloes (Personal observations). I INVESTIGATION OF FETAL DEATH Fetal death later in development will lead to abortion, mummification or maceration. Mummified fetuses may be retained indefinitely if there is the only one fetus. Maceration requires bacterial infection of the fetus. It is common with Campylobacter fetus and Tritrichomonas foetus in cattle and with nonspecifi

(PDF) Plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-1 (PAG1

I. Abortion, intrauterine death, and gross abnormalities in fetal swine infected with hog cholera vaccine virus. Lab Invest. 1974 May; 30 (5):608-617. Kahrs RF, Scott FW, de Lahunte A. Congenital cerebella hypoplasia and ocular defects in calves following bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease infection in pregnant cattle requirement is @ 0.03 mg/kg of milk (NRC, 2001). During gestation, the cattle may need up to 50 mg of Mn/Kg of DM to help in skeletal cartilage growth and fetal bone formation. Cobalt: Cobalt is vital in the synthesis of vitamin B 12. Co deficiency causes reduced fertility Ball L, Carroll EJ. Induction of fetal death in cattle by manual rupture of the amniotic vesicle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1963; 142:373-374. Ball PJH, Logue DDN. Ultrasound diagnosis of pregnancy in cattle. Vet Rec 1994; 134:532. Baxter SJ, Ward WR. Incidence of fetal loss in dairy cattle after pregnancy diagnosis using an ultrasound scanner strikes very dense tissues such as fetal bones or occasionally, the bovine cervix. Applications in the Bull Ultrasonography is noninvasive and can be used both to ass ess normal function and detect pathologic lesions in the bull. Ultrasonographic examination of the penis, prepuce

Uterine torsion and fetal mummification in a cow

KRISHI Publication and Data Inventory Repository: Fetal

Retrospective case study of fetal mummification in cows

Hence fetal causes are more common in cows whereas in the buffalo uterine torsion is the single largest cause of dystocia in the dairy buffalo. Cause of dystocia Cattle (% frequency) Buffalo (% frequency) Fetopelvic disproportion 45 8. Fetal malpresentation 26 2 Cattle, an intermediate host, acquire the infection by ingesting oocytes or via the trans-placental route. In cattle fetal death with either abortion or mummification can occur. Fetuses that became infected before the first 100 days of gestation, do seldom survive since their immune system is underdeveloped Scott FW, Kahrs RF, De Lahunte A, Brown TT, McEntee K, Gillespie JH. Virus induced congenital anomalies of the bovine fetus. I. Cerebellar degeneration (hypoplasia), ocular lesions and fetal mummification following experimental infection with bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease virus. Cornell Vet. 1973 Oct; 63 (4):536-560 In that regard, fetal mummification has a negative impact on the total number of piglets born alive per litter (BORGES et al., 2005). According to ZANELLA, SILVEIRA & SOBESTIANSKY (2007), fetal mummification rates of up to 1.5% are generally acceptable; however, there is an increasing number of reports indicating a steep increase in fetal.

I) Mummification ii) Maceration iii) Pyometra iv) Early embryonic death. v) Luteal cyst 17. 5/11/2017REPROODUCTIVE DISORDERS OF FARM ANIMALS17 1. Mummification: It is a condition wherein the fetal fluid and soft tissue is reabsorbed leaving just a mass of bone and skin tightly enclosed by the contracted uterine walls. 18 Inquiry in Action Preface Acknowledgments 1. Study of female genitalia in slaughter house specimens 2. Comparative anatomy of female reproductive tracts 3. Per-rectal palpation of female genital organs 4. Oestrus detection in cattle and buffalo 5. Behavioural signs of oestrus in mare, ewe, doe and bitch 6 Vidéo en ligne. Consultez les 50 meilleurs articles de revues pour votre recherche sur le sujet « Alpaca (Textile) ». À côté de chaque source dans la liste de références il y a un bouton « Ajouter à la bibliographie ». Cliquez sur ce bouton, et nous générerons automatiquement la référence bibliographique pour la source choisie.

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